Therefore, one must be cautious in generalizing from these results

The preponderance of SS research has been conducted in Catholic SS schools in which students are separated by sex only when entering adolescence

The outcomes in this domain generally do not appear in more than one or two studies that made it to Phase III review. Having said that, the results still suggest the potential that SS schooling could be associated with a number of post-high school, long-term positive outcomes. These include postsecondary success or participation in collegiate activities while maintaining full-time enrollment for a four-year period, reduced unemployment (males and females), reduced propensity to drop out of high school (males and females), the choice of a nontraditional college major (for females), and political activism (for females). The sole exception is eating disorders; one study found more SS students to have eating disorders than CE students.

This question could not be addressed because of a lack of any quantitative studies that used gender equity as an outcome variable at the school level. Any studies that compared SS and CE classrooms within a CE school were outside the purview of this study and were not reviewed.

This category includes a number of disparate, single-study results. One of the two studies addressing leadership opportunities found more opportunities for both males and females in SS schools; however, the statistical significance of this finding depended on what other variables had been controlled for. The other found that both males and females in SS schools put more value on grades and leadership and less on attractiveness and money. However, there remains a dearth of high-quality empirical studies using this class of outcome variables as criteria.

There remains a lack of research both on this class of criteria and on the relationship of subjective satisfaction to other more critical criteria

A final category of outcomes examined as a subset of culture was the realm of subjective satisfaction of students, parents, and teachers with the school environment. Some qualitative studies have looked at why certain parents prefer SS schooling, and studies in other cultures have found mixed results regarding teacher satisfaction with CE versus SS schooling. However, no empirical studies comparing current parental satisfaction in equivalent SS and CE schools were available for review using the stated guidelines.

Teenage pregnancy, college performance, differential treatment by teachers, parental satisfaction, bullying in school, and teacher satisfaction were among the many outcomes that we expected to see in the review or that should be addressed but were not scruff found in any included study.

A few trends are apparent across all outcomes. The preponderance of studies in areas such as academic accomplishment (both concurrent and long term) and adaptation or socioemotional development (both concurrent and long term) yields results lending support to SS schooling. A limited number of studies throughout the review provide evidence favoring CE schooling. It is more common to come across studies that report no differences between SS and CE schooling than to find outcomes with support for the superiority of CE. In terms of outcomes that may be of most interest to the primary stakeholders (students and their parents), such as academic achievement test scores, self-concept, and long-term indicators of success, there is a degree of support for SS schooling.

The overwhelming majority of studies employ high school students, with a small minority using elementary school students. Therefore, opportunities to study SS elementary or middle schools in either the public or private sector have been limited.

There is also a pronounced tendency to study girls’ schools more than boys’ schools: 76 studies compared SS and CE girls, and 20 of those focused exclusively on girls. Of those 20, 18 were split evenly between support for SS schooling and no differences (nine pro-SS and nine no differences). The other two studies resulted in findings supporting CE schooling. SS and CE schooling for boys was compared in 55 studies, of which only three were studies exclusively devoted to boys’ schools.